Base Oils

Almost every lubricant used in plants today started off as just a base oil. The main element of lubricants (volume-wise) is base oil, and it forms about 95% of the lubricant’s weight. In some lubricants (Compressor and Hydraulic oil) 99% of the oil has consisted of base oil and only 1% which is left contains additives.

Base oils can be reached from oil-based and non-oil-based resources. The American Petroleum Institute (API) has categorized base oils into five categories (API 1509, Appendix E). Most of the base oils used in the world are obtained from crude oil refining. Most of the compounds which form base oils are Paraffinic, Naphthenic and Aromatic compounds.

Fuel Oil

Fuel oil is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation. Fuel oil (also known as Heavy Oil, Marine Fuel, Or Furnace Oil) refers to the heaviest commercial fuel acquired from refining crude oil, either as a distillate or residue.
However, generally, fuel oil refers to any liquid fuel that is used in a furnace/boiler to generate heat or in an engine to generate power. The ISO 8217 international standard divides marine fuels into distillate marine fuels and residual marine fuels. It can be also categorized based on the Sulphur content as the following: High Sulphur Fuel Oil (HSFO): Max. 3.5%, Low Sulphur Fuel Oil (LSFO): Max 1.0%, Ultra-Low Sulphur Fuel Oil (ULSFO): Max 0.1%.


Mixture of hydrocarbons derived from petroleum. Black or brown, it varies from viscous to solid bitumen. The production in according to three standard methods: Blowing method, straight run method, and blending method. Due to the control of the process conditions, different grades are produced. Bitumen classification according to various specification such as penetration, viscosity, performance of bitumen. Penetration bitumen is a semi-hard black material known as petroleum grade bitumen. Penetration grade bitumen mainly used in road surfacing. Bitumen with lower penetration grade used in the regions with a warm climate, while higher penetration grade used in cold weather. Mostly used penetration bitumen including, bitumen 40/50, bitumen 60/70, bitumen 80/100.

Linear Alkyl Benzene

Linear Alkyl Benzene is a major surfactant intermediate used in detergents. Linear Alkyl Benzene is derived from petroleum. LAB’s primary usage is in the manufacturing of Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulfonates.
LABSA, is the world’s largest-volume synthetic surfactant, which includes the various salts of sulfonated alkylbenzenes, is widely used in household detergents as well as in other numerous industrial applications.
Its production has increased significantly from about 1 million tons in 1980, to around 3.5 million tons in 2016, making them most produced anionic surfactant after soaps

Light Naphtha

The word “Naphtha” comes from the Greek and is derived from the Persian word “Naft” (crude oil). Light Naphtha contain mostly C5 and C6 hydrocarbons with a distillation range of 30°C and 60°C.
Also known as, light straight run Naphtha, LSR, Natural Gasoline, Light Paraffinic Naphtha, Pentanes Plus. Light Naphtha can refer to either a finished product used as a petrochemical feedstock or a distillation cut commonly called light straight run Naphtha. It is composed of Pentane and slightly heavier material.
Light Naphtha comes from distillation of crude oil or from separation of NGLs in an NGL fractionation plant. Light Naphtha boils at between 35°C and 130°C and has a higher Paraffin content than heavy Naphtha, which boils between 130°C and 210°C and contains a lot of Naphthenes and Aromatics. Compared to heavy Naphtha, which is often further refined, light Naphtha is the least processed product of a refinery.

(MTBE (Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether)‎

Methyl Tertiary-Butyl Ether is a chemical compound that is manufactured by the chemical reaction of Methanol and Isobutylene. MTBE is produced in very large quantities and is almost exclusively used as a fuel additive in motor gasoline. It is one of a group of chemicals commonly known as “Oxygenates” because they raise the oxygen content of gasoline.
At room temperature, MTBE is a volatile, flammable, and colorless liquid that dissolves rather easily in water. Over 90% of Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE) production is used in gasoline as an octane booster and oxygenate. With its high-octane number, it is suitable where higher octane gasoline grades are sold. It has been favored over Ethanol because of its transportability, superior performance in reducing Benzene and Formaldehyde in gasoline, and its lower volatile organic compound content.


Polymer, any of a class of natural or synthetic substances composed of very large molecules, called macromolecules, that are multiples of simpler chemical units called monomers.
Although the terms are often used interchangeably, polymers and plastics are not always the same thing. Polymers can exist organically or be created synthetically. The molecular structure of a polymer determines the fundamental properties of the material.
Synthetic polymers are produced by chemical reactions, termed “Polymerizations.” Some polymerizations join entire monomers together, whereas others join only portions of monomers and create “leftover” materials, or by-products.

Solvents 402-502-503

White Spirit-Raffinate-Heavy End

Solvent or White Spirit or Mineral Spirits also known as solvent Naphtha (petroleum), Varsol, Stoddard Solvent is a petroleum-derived clear liquid used as a common organic solvent or fractions. The term “Solvents” refers to a class of chemical compounds described by function. The term derives from Latin, meaning roughly to “loosen.” In chemistry, solvents –which are generally in liquid form– are used to dissolve, suspend, or extract other materials, usually without chemically changing either the solvents or the other materials.

Many different solvents are used in a wide variety of everyday product applications, from paint, personal care products and pharmaceuticals, to pesticides, cleaners, and inks.


Urea fertilizers are widely used in the agriculture. They are considered an economic Nitrogen source. The chemical formula of Urea is CO(NH2)2. Commercial Urea fertilizers are produced by reacting Ammonia with Carbon Dioxide.
In its solid form, Urea is provided as either prills or granules. Granules are slightly larger than prills and are denser. Both prilled and granular Urea fertilizers contain 46% Nitrogen.
Nitrogen leaching and volatilization rates are usually higher when using the prilled form. Therefore, granular Urea fertilizers are 15-20% more efficient than prilled.
Urea is also used as an animal feed additive and as an important raw material for the chemical industry.